Swedish method for estimating emissions from solvent use

On behalf of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (Swedish EPA), Swedish Environmental Emissions Data (SMED), has further developed the calculation model for estimating the national emissions of NMVOC and CO2 from use of solvents in Sweden. The model has been revised in order to meet international reporting requirements according to CLRTAP and UNFCCC as well as to support national needs. The model makes it possible to test different sets of emission factors within the solvent use sector. This function can be used to assess different actions and emission reduction potentials. Furthermore, the model can generate emissions per user category and product group. This information can be used when following-up the Swedish environmental quality objectives.

The calculation model is consumption-based with a product-related approach. Amounts of NMVOC and C in solvents and solvent-based products, produced in, imported to, used in, and exported from Sweden, was derived from the Swedish Product Register hosted by the Swedish Chemicals Agency. Emission factors from the literature have been used as far as possible, but in the case when emission factors are unavailable, country specific emission factors have been developed.

The most significant sources of emissions of NMVOC and CO2 during recent years are “Other solvent use” (NFR 2.D.3.i), “Domestic use” (NFR 2.D.3.a) and “Coating applications” (NFR 2.D.3.d).

The new model results in reduced national emissions of NMVOC and CO2 from solvent use in comparison with previous estimates (-18% 1990, -10% 2005 and -28% for 2010 for NMVOC). This is mainly due to the following changes in the model:

•Reallocation of activities from 2.D.3.i “Other solvent use”. In previous estimates an emission factor of 0.95 was used for all activities reported in this NFR-code. In the revised model the emission factor depends on which NFR-code the activity has been allocated to.

•Introduction of a new emission factor for products that are used diluted in water. In previous estimates these products were not treated separately, and consequently an emission factor of 0.95 was used. In the new model an emission factor of 0.275 is used.

Simultaneously, however, the new model results in increased emissions for the following NFR-codes:

“Domestic use” (NFR 2.D.3.a): An increase from 2002 and onwards. This is mainly due to an increased use of the following product groups: washer fluid, degreasing agents and ignition fluids. Other solvent use (NFR 2.D.3.i): An increase since 1995. The increase is mainly due to a greater use of the product groups preservatives, refrigerants, metal mordants/etchants and coolant agents. To conclude, the new Swedish method for estimating emissions of NMVOC and CO2 from Solvent Use is more transparent, complete and better adapted to its purposes compared to previous methods. The design of the model makes it easy to adjust emission factors and include new years in the time series, which facilitates consistent annual updates of time series in the future.

NV DiVA SMED Report Nr 192 2016