Emissions of particles, metals, dioxins and PAH in Sweden

Sweden has signed the protocols on long-range transboundary air pollutants (LRTAP), and as a consequence of this, emission estimates are to be reported annually to the Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE), according to EB.AIR/GE.1/2002/7, Draft Guidelines for Estimating and Reporting Emissions Data (UNECE, 2002). National emissions of SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC and NH3 have been reported extensively in the past, but emissions of particles, heavy metals, PAH and dioxins have, with a few exceptions not been included.

In 2002 SMED, Swedish Methodology for Environmental Data, was given the task by the Swedish EPA to compile time series of emissions of TSP (Total Suspended Particulate matter), PM10, PM2,5, heavy metals, PAH-4 and dioxins in Sweden. The objective was to compile data from 1980-2001 for each substance, to be included in the submission of national emissions to UNECE/LRTAP in February 2003. Emission figures in the submission were, however, reported at a rather aggregated level, and details of the sources included and how the estimates were made were not provided. The purpose of this report is to provide background information on the emissions estimation methodology, emission factors and the origin of the emission factors and activity data used in the estimates. For some sources and substances only limited infomation on national emissions or emission factors was available, and therefore suggested international default emission factors were used in those cases. Further work is needed in order to reduce the uncertainty in these estimates and to verify that emission levels are relevant to Swedish conditions.

The study includes all relevant sectors, but the focus has been on sources, which account for the larger shares of the national total emissions of the covered compounds. Due to lack of data, not all sources and substances are covered for the entire time period. This report, however, presents more data and estimated emissions than was submitted to UNECE/LRTAP in 2003. For example, in the 2003 submission to UNECE/LRTAP, heavy metals were only reported for the period 1990-2001. In this report estimated metal emissions from certain sources during the 1980´s are presented, as well as discussions on sources and substances where, due to gaps in knowledge, roughly calculated emission levels are still too uncertain to be officially submitted.